Sunday, August 23, 2015

Open Letter to Dr. Ibrahim Awwad Al-Badri, alias ‘Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi’, And To the Fighters and Followers of the Self-Declared ‘Islamic State’ – Concluding Part

By 120 leading religious scholars and academics from across the Muslim world
24th Dhul-Qi’da 1435 AH / 19th September 2014 CE
13. Coercion and Compulsion:
 God < says: ‘you are not a taskmaster over them’ (Al-Ghashiyah, 88: 22); and: ‘There is no compulsion in religion. Rectitude has become clear from error …’ (Al-Baqarah, 2: 256); and: ‘And if your Lord willed, all who are in the earth would have believed together. Would you then compel people until they are believers?’ (Yunus, 10: 99); and: ‘And say, “Te truth [that comes] from your Lord; so whoever will, let him believe, and whoever will, let him disbelieve”.’ (Al-Kahf, 18: 29); and: ‘You have your religion and I have my religion’ (Al-Kafrun, 109: 6).
It is known that the verse: ‘There is no compulsion in religion’ was revealed after the Conquest of Mecca, hence, no one can claim that it was abrogated. You have coerced people to convert to Islam just as you have coerced Muslims to accept your views. You also coerce everyone living under your control in every matter, great or small, even in matters which are between the individual and God < to execute His commandments. Yet, not a single one of the Companions did this. Tis is not enjoining the right and honourable and forbidding the wrong; rather, it is coercion, assault, and constant, random intimidation. If God < wanted this, He would have obliged them over the minutest details of His religion. God < says: ‘… Have they not realised, those who believe, that had God willed, He could have guided all mankind? ...’ (Al-Ra’d, 13: 31); and: ‘If We will We will send down to them a sign from the heaven before which their necks will remain bowed in humility.’ (Al-Shu’ara’, 26: 4).
14. Women: In simple terms, you treat women like detainees and prisoners; they dress according to your whims; they are not allowed to leave their homes and they are not allowed to go to school. Despite the fact that the Prophet U said: ‘Te pursuit of knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim47’, and despite the fact that the first word revealed of the Qur’an was: ‘Read’. Nor are they neither allowed to work or earn a living; nor allowed to move about freely and they are forced to marry your fighters. God < says: ‘O people, fear your Lord, Who created you of a single soul, and from it created its mate, and from the pair of them scattered many men and women; and fear God by whom you claim [your rights] from one another and kinship ties. Surely God has been watchful over you.’ (Al-Nisa’, 4: 1). And the Prophet U said: ‘Treat women well48.’
(Vol. 6, p. 596); Sirah Ibn Hisham (Vol. 1, p. 266)
47 Narrated by Ibn Majah, no. 224, and by Al-Tabarani in al-Mu’jam al-Kabir (10/195).
48 Narrated by Al-Bukhari in Kitab al-Nikah, no. 5186; and by Muslim in Kitab al-Rida’, no. 1468
15. Children: You have made children engage in war and killing. Some are taking up arms and others are playing with the severed heads of your victims. Some children have been thrown into the fray of combat and are killing and being killed. In your schools some children are tortured and coerced into doing your bidding and others are being executed. These are crimes against innocents who are so young they are not even morally accountable. God < says: ‘What is wrong with you, that you do not fight in the way of God, and for the oppressed men, women, and children who say, “Our Lord, bring us forth from this town whose people are evildoers and appoint for us a protector from You, and appoint for us from You a helper”.’ (Al-Nisa’, 4: 75).
16. Hudud (Punishment): Hudud punishments are fixed in the Qur’an and Hadith and are unquestionably obligatory in Islamic Law. However, they are not to be applied without clarification, warning, exhortation, and meeting the burden of proof; and they are not to be applied in a cruel manner. For example, the Prophet U avoided Hudud in some circumstances, and as is widely known, Omar ibn Al-Khattab suspended the Hudud during a famine. In all schools of jurisprudence, Hudud punishments have clear procedures that need to be implemented with mercy, and their conditions render it difficult to actually implement them. Moreover, suspicions or doubts avert Hudud; i.e. if there is any doubt whatsoever, the hudud punishment cannot be implemented. Te hudud punishments are also not applied to those who are in need or deprived or destitute; there are no Hudud for the theft of fruits and vegetables or for stealing under a certain amount. You have rushed to enact the Hudud while, in reality, conscientious religious fervour makes implementing Hudud punishments something of the utmost difficulty with the highest burden of proof.
17. Torture: Your captives and some of those who were under your control have said that you tortured and terrorized them through beatings; murder and various other forms of torture, including burying people alive. You have decapitated people with knives, which is one of the cruellest forms of torture and is forbidden in Islamic Law (Shari’ah). In the mass killings you have committed—which are forbidden under Islamic Law—your fghters mock those they are about to kill by telling them that they will be killed like sheep, bleating and then indeed butchering them like sheep. Your fighters are not satisfied with mere killing; they add humiliation, debasement and mockery to it. God < says: ‘O you who believe, do not let any people deride another people: who may be better than they are …’ (Al-Hujurat, 49: 11).
18. Mutilation: Not only have you mutilated corpses, you have stuck the decapitated heads of your victims on spikes and rods and kicked their severed heads around like balls and broadcast it to the world during the World Cup—a sport that is permissible in principle in Islam and which allows people to relieve stress and forget their problems. You jeered at corpses and severed heads and broadcast these acts from the military bases you overran in Syria. You have provided ample ammunition for all those who want to call Islam barbaric with your broadcasting of barbaric acts which you pretend are for the sake of Islam. You have given the world a stick with which to beat Islam whereas in reality Islam is completely innocent of these acts and prohibits them.
19. Attributing crimes to God in the name of humility: After tying Syrian soldiers of the 17th Division in North-eastern Syria to barbed wire, you cut of their heads with knives and posted a video of this on the internet. In the video you said: ‘We are your brothers, the soldiers of the Islamic State. God has favoured us with His grace and victory by conquering the 17th Division; a victory and favour through God. We seek refuge in God from our might and power. We seek refuge in God from our weapons and our readiness.’ You thus attributed this heinous crime to God
20. Destruction of the graves and shrines of Prophets and Companions. You have blown up and destroyed the graves of Prophets and Companions. Scholars disagree on the subject of graves. Nevertheless, it is not permissible to blow up the graves of Prophets and Companions and disinter their remains, just as it is not permissible to burn grapes under the pretext that some people use them to make wine. God < says: ‘… Those who prevailed regarding their afair, “We will verily set up over them, a place of worship”.’ (Al-Kahf, 18:21); and: ‘… Take to yourselves Abraham's station for a place of prayer …’ (Al-Baqarah, 2: 125). Te Prophet U said: ‘I had previously prohibited you from visiting graves. Permission has been granted for Muhammad to visit his mother’s grave, so visit them [i.e. graves] for they remind [one] of death and the Hereafter49.’ Visiting graves reminds people of death and the Hereafter; God < says in the Qur’an: ‘Rivalry [in worldly things] distracts you until you visit the graves.’ (Al-Takathur, 102: 1-2)
49. Narrated by Muslim in his Sahih, no. 977, and by Al-Tirmidhi, no. 1054 and by others
Your former leader, Abu Omar Al-Baghdadi said: ‘In our opinion, it is obligatory to destroy and remove all manifestations of shirk (idolatry) and to prohibit all means that lead to it because of Muslim’s narration in his Sahih: on the authority of Abu Al-Hiyaj Al-Asadi, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib said: “Should I not tell you what he [i.e. the Prophet] U sent me to do: not to leave a statue without obliterating it nor a raised grave without leveling it.”’ However, even if what he said were true, it does not apply to the graves of Prophets or Companions, as the Companions were in consensus regarding burying the Prophet U and his two Companions, Abu Bakr and Omar, in a building that was contiguous to the Prophet’s Mosque.
21. Rebelling against the leader. It is impermissible to rebel against the leader who is not guilty of declared and candid disbelief (al-kufr al-bawwah); i.e. disbelief that he himself admits to openly and where all Muslims are in consensus regarding such a person being a non-Muslim—or by his prohibiting the establishment of prayers. Te evidence of this is in God’s < words: ‘O you who believe, obey God, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you ...’ (Al-Nisa’, 4: 59). Te Prophet U also said: ‘Listen and obey even if an Abyssinian whose head is like a raisin is given authority over you50.’ Te Prophet U also said: ‘Te best of your rulers are those whom you love and who love you, who invoke God’s blessings upon you and you invoke His blessings upon them. And the worst of your rulers are those whom you hate and who hate you and whom you curse and who curse you.’ It was asked (by those present): “Shouldn’t we overthrow them by the sword?” He said: “No, as long as they establish prayer among you. If you then find anything detestable in them, you should hate their administration, but do not withdraw yourselves from their obedience51.”’ As for a ruler who is a reprobate or corrupt, he is to be removed by those qualified to elect or dispose a caliph on behalf of the Ummah (nation) (ahl al-hall wal- ‘aqd)—if possible—without sedition (Fitnah), armed rebellion or bloodshed. However, he is not rebelled against. It is forbidden to rebel against a leader even if he does not implement the Shari’ah or a portion of it, for God < says: ‘… Whoever does not judge according to what God has revealed - such are the disbelievers.’ (Al-Ma’idah, 5: 44); and: ‘… Whoever does not judge according to what God has revealed, those are the evildoers.’ (Al-Ma’idah, 5: 45); and: ‘… Whoever does not judge according to what God has revealed - those are the wicked.’ (Al-Ma’idah, 5: 47). So, there are three levels of those who do not implement the Shari’ah: disbelief (Kufr), evildoing (Fusuq) and wickedness (Dhulm). Whoever prevents the Shari’ah from being practiced at all in a Muslim country is a disbeliever, but one who does not implement part of it or only implements its higher purposes is merely an evildoer or wicked. In some countries, the implementation of Shari’ah is restricted due to matters of sovereignty on which national security depends, and this is permissible. In summary, Ibn Abbas52 says that whoever does not implement Shari’ah is a wicked evildoer, but he is not a disbeliever and rebelling against him is forbidden. Ibn Abbas said that ruling by other than God’s commandments is ‘disbelief short of disbelief.’ He also said: ‘It is not the disbelief that they mean; it is not a disbelief that casts one from the fold of religion.’
50 Narrated by Al-Bukhari in Kitab al-Adhan, no. 693
51 Narrated by Muslim in Kitab al-Imarah, no. 1855
22. Te Caliphate: Terre is agreement (Ittifaq) among scholars that a caliphate is an obligation upon the Ummah. Te Ummah has lacked a caliphate since 1924 CE. However, a new caliphate requires consensus from Muslims and not just from those in some small corner of the world. Omar ibn Al-Khattab W said: ‘Whosoever pledges allegiance to a man without due consultation with Muslims has fooled himself; and neither he nor the man to whom he pledged allegiance should be followed for he has risked both their lives53.’ Announcing a caliphate without consensus is sedition (Fitnah) because it renders the majority of Muslims who do not approve it outside of the caliphate. It will also lead to many rival caliphates emerging, thereby sowing sedition and discord (Fitnah) among Muslims. Te beginnings of this discord reared its head when the Sunni imams of Mosul did not pledge allegiance to you and you killed them.
In your speech you quoted the Companion Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq W: ‘I have been given authority over you, and I am not the best of you.’ This begs the question: who gave you authority over the Ummah? Was it your group? If this is the case, then a group of no more than several thousand has appointed itself the ruler of over a billion and a half Muslims. This attitude is based upon a corrupt circular logic that says: ‘Only we are Muslims and we decide who the caliph is, we have chosen one and so whoever does not accept our caliph is not a Muslim.’ In this case, a caliph is nothing more than the leader of a certain group that declares more than 99% of Muslims non-Muslim. On the other hand, if you recognize the billion and a half people who consider themselves Muslims, how can you not consult (Shura) them regarding your so-called caliphate? Thus, you face one of two conclusions: either you concur that they are Muslims and they did not appoint you caliph over them—in which case you are not the caliph—or, the other conclusion is that you do not accept them as Muslims, in which case Muslims are a small group not in need of a caliph, so why use the word ‘caliph’ at all? In truth, the caliphate must emerge from a consensus of Muslim countries, organizations of Islamic scholars and Muslims across the globe.
52 Narrated by Al-Hakim in Al-Mustadrak ‘ala as-Sahihayn, (Vol. 2, p. 342)
53 Narrated by Al-Bukhari in Kitab al-Hudud, no. 6830
23. National afliations: In one of your speeches you said: ‘Syria is not for Syrians and Iraq is not for Iraqis54.’ In the same speech, you called on Muslims from across the globe to immigrate to lands under the control of the ‘Islamic State’ in Iraq and the Levant. By doing so, you take the rights and resources of these countries and distribute them among people who are strangers to those lands, even though they are of the same religion. Tis is exactly what Israel did when it invited Jewish settlers abroad to immigrate to Palestine, evict the Palestinians and usurp their ancestral rights and lands. Where is the justice in this?
Simply, patriotism and loving one’s country does not contradict Islam’s teachings, rather, loving one’s country stems from faith, being both instinctual and a Sunnah. Te Prophet U said, addressing Mecca: ‘How goodly a land you are, and how beloved you are to me. Were it not that my people forced me to leave, I would not have lived anywhere else55.’ Patriotism and love for one’s country have many proofs from the Qur’an and Sunnah. God < says in the Qur’an: ‘And had We prescribed for them: “Slay yourselves” or “Leave your habitations”, they would not have done it, save a few of them …’ (Al-Nisa’, 4: 66). Fakhr Al-Din Al-Razi commented: ‘Leaving one’s land is equal to slaying oneself56.’ And on the authority of Anas Ibn Malik W, the Prophet U ‘would, upon seeing the walls of Medina when returning from travel, hasten the pace of his she-camel. If he was riding a mount, he would move it out of love for [Medina] 57.’ Ibn Hajar said: This Hadith is proof of the virtue of Medina, and of the legal validity of loving one’s country and longing for it58.
24. Emigration. You invited Muslims from across the globe to immigrate to lands under the control of the ‘Islamic State’ in Iraq and the Levant59. Abu Muslim Al-Canadi, a soldier of the ‘Islamic State’, said: ‘Come and join us [in Syria] before the doors close60.’ It suffices to repeat the words of the Prophet Muhammed U who said: ‘Tere is no emigration after the Conquest [of Mecca], but jihad and [its] intention [remain]. And when you are called to war, march forward61.
54 BBC news online, 1st July 2014.
55 Narrated by Al-Tirmidhi in Kitab al-Manaqib, no. 3926; and in Sahih Ibn Hibban (Vol. 9, p. 23).
56 Mafatih Al-Ghayb, Al-Razi (Vol. 15, p. 515) in the exegesis of Al-Anfal, 8:75.
57 Fath Al-Bari, Ibn Hajar (Vol. 3, p. 621).
58 Fath Al-Bari, Ibn Hajar (Vol. 3, p. 621).
59 BBC news online, on 1st July 2014.
60 He appeared in a recruitment video produced by Hayat Media Center, August, 2014.
61 Narrated by Al-Bukhari in Kitab al-Jihad, no. 2783
In conclusion, God has described Himself as the ‘Most Merciful of the merciful’. He created man from His mercy. God < says in the Qur’an: ‘Te Compassionate One has taught the Qur’an. He created man’ (Al-Rahman, 55: 1-3). And God < created man for His mercy: ‘Had your Lord willed, He would have made mankind one community, but they continue to differ, except those on whom your Lord has mercy; and that is why He created them ...’ (Hud, 11: 118-119). Linguistically, ‘that’ refers back to the closest noun, which is ‘mercy’, not ‘difer’. Tis is the opinion of Ibn Abbas, who said: ‘He created them for mercy62.’
Te soundest way to attain this mercy is the worship of God < revealed the Qur’an as a mercy from Him: ‘and We reveal of the Qur’an that which is a cure, and a mercy for believers …’ (Al-Isra’, 17:82). Islam is mercy and its attributes are merciful. Te Prophet U, who was sent as a mercy for all the worlds, summarized a Muslim’s dealings with others by saying: ‘He who shows no mercy, will not be shown mercy63’; and: ‘Have mercy and you will be shown mercy64.’ But, as can be seen from everything mentioned, you have misinterpreted Islam into a religion of harshness, brutality, torture and murder. As elucidated, this is a great wrong and an ofence to Islam, to Muslims and to the entire world.
Reconsider all your actions; desist from them; repent from them; cease harming others and return to the religion of mercy. God < says in the Qur’an: ‘Say [that God declares]: “O My servants who have been prodigal against their own souls, do not despair of God’s mercy. Truly God forgives all sins. Truly He is the Forgiving, the Merciful.”’ (Al-Zumar, 39:53).
And God knows best.
24th Dhul-Qi’da 1435 AH / 19th September 2014 CE
62 Cf Mafatih Al-Ghayb, Al-Razi (Vol. 18, p. 412).
63 Narrated by Bukhari in Kitab al-Adab, no. 5997, and by Musim in Kitab al-Fada’il, no. 2318.
64 Narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad (Vol. 2, p. 160).
The Saying of Ali bin Abi Talib (k.)
Nu’aym ibn Hammad narrates in Al-Fitan, that the 4th Caliph, Ali ibn Abi Talib said:
When you see the black fags, remain where you are and do not move your hands or your feet. Thereafter there shall appear a feeble insignificant folk. Their hearts will be like fragments of iron. They will have the state. They will fulfill neither covenant nor agreement. They will call to the truth, but they will not be people of the truth. Their names will be parental attributions, and their aliases will be derived from towns. Their hair will be free-fowing like that of women. Tis situation will remain until they differ among themselves. Thereafter, God will bring forth the Truth through whomever He wills65.
People are asking: does this narration by Ali bin Abi Talib (k.)—that is related by Al-Bukhari’s teacher (Nu’aym bin Hamad) over one thousand two hundred years ago in his book Al-Fitan—refer to the ‘Islamic State’?
Is it possible to understand the narration as follows?
‘When you see the black fags’: Te fags of the ‘Islamic State’ are black.
‘Remain where you are’: i.e., stay where you are, O Muslims, and do not join them.
‘And do not move your hands or your feet’: i.e. do not help them financially or with equipment.
‘Thereafter there shall appear a feeble insignificant folk’: i.e. ‘weak’ and ‘insignificant’ in terms of understanding of religion, morality and religious practice.
‘Their hearts will be like fragments of iron’: i.e. they will ruthlessly kill prisoners of war and cruelly torture people.
‘They will have the state’: For almost a century, no one has claimed to be an Islamic Caliphate other than the current ‘Islamic State’ in Iraq and the Levant.
‘They will fulfill neither covenant nor agreement’: Te ‘Islamic State’ did not fulfl its agreement with the Sha’etat tribe after the tribe pledged allegiance to them; indeed the ‘Islamic State’ slaughtered them by the hundreds. They also killed journalists.
‘They will call to the truth’: Te ‘Islamic State’ calls to Islam.
65. Narrated by Nu’aym ibn Hammad in Kitab Al-Fitan, Hadith no. 573.
‘But they will not be people of the truth’: Te people of the truth are merciful. Te Prophet Muhammad U said: ‘Have mercy and you will be shown mercy.
‘Their names will be parental attributions’: Like: ‘Abu Muthanna’, ‘Abu Muhammad’, ‘Abu Muslim’ and so on.
‘And their aliases will be derived from towns’: Like: ‘Al-Baghdadi’, ‘al-Zarqawi’, ‘al-Tunisi’ and so on.
‘Their hair will be free-flowing like that of women’: ‘Islamic State’ fighters have hair precisely like this.
‘Until they differ among themselves’: Like the differences between the ‘Islamic State’ and its parent, the al-Nusra Front (al-Qaeda in Syria). Te fighting between these two has led to around ten thousand deaths in a single year.
‘Thereafter, God will bring forth the truth through whomever He wills’: through a clear and correct Islamic proclamation (like this open letter).
Te sage Luqman says in the Qur’an:
‘O my son! Even if it should be the weight of a grain of mustard-seed, and [even if] it be in a rock, or in the heavens, or in the earth, God will bring it forth. Truly God is Subtle, Aware.’ (Luqman, 31: 16)
List of Signatories (In alphabetical order)
1. HE the Sultan Muhammad Sa'ad Ababakar Te Sultan of Sokoto, Head of the Nigerian National Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs
2. Prof. Abdul-Rahman Abbad
Prof. of Islamic Studies at the College of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, and Secretary of the Body of Scholars and Preachers, Jerusalem
3. Mr. Omar Abboud
Secretary-General of the Institute for Interreligious Dialogue, Buenos Aires, Argentina
4. Prof. Salim Abdul-Jalil
Former Undersecretary for da’wah at the Awqaf Ministry, and Professor of Islamic Civilization at Misr University for Science & Technology, Egypt
5. Sheikh Wahid Abdul-Jawad
Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt
6. Dr. Mustafa Abdul-Kareem
Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt
7. Prof. Ibrahim Abdul-Rahim
Professor of Shari’ah, Dar al-Ulum College, Cairo University, Egypt
8. Prof. Jafar Abdul-Salam
Secretary-General of the League of Islamic Universities and Prof. of International Humanitarian Law, Egypt
9. HE Dr. Sheikh Hussain Hasan Abkar
Chairman of the Supreme Council for Islamic Afairs and Imam of the Muslims in the Republic of Chad, Chad
10. HE Prince Judge Bola AbdulJabbar Ajibola
Islamic Mission for Africa (IMA) and Founder of Crescent University, Nigeria
11. HE Prof. Sheikh Shawqi Allam
Te Grand Mufti of Egypt, Egypt
12. Prof. Sheikh Abdul Nasser Abu Al-Basal
Professor at Yarmouk University, Jordan
13. Prof. Mohammad Mahmoud Abu-Hashem
Vice-President of Al-Azhar University and member of the Centre for Islamic Research at Al-Azhar Al-Sharif, Egypt
14. HE Prof. Sheikh Mustafa Cagrici
Former Mufti of Istanbul, Turkey
15. Sheikh Mohammad Ahmad Al-Akwa
Senior Sunni Scholar, Yemen
16. Prof. Mohammad Al-Amir
Dean of the Faculty of Islamic Studies for Girls, Al-Mansoura University, Egypt
17. Dr. Majdi Ashour
Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt
18. Prof. Dr. Abdul-Hai Azab
Dean of the Faculty of Shari’ah and Law, Al-Azhar University, Egypt
19. Azhar Aziz
President of the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), USA
20. Prof. Mustafa Abu Sway
Te Integral Professorial Chair for the Study of Imam Ghazali’s Work, Jerusalem
21. Prof. Bakr Zaki Awad
Dean of the Faculty of Teology, Al-Azhar University, Egypt
22. Nihad Awad
National Executive Director of the Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR), USA
23. Dr. Sheikh Osama Mahmoud Al-Azhari
Islamic Preacher, Egypt
24. Dr. Jamal Badawi
Executive Director of the Fiqh Council of North America, USA
25. Dr. Ihsan Bagby
Associate Professor of Islamic Studies at the University of Kentucky, and Council Member of the Fiqh Council of North America, USA
26. Naeem Baig
President of the Islamic Circle of North America (ICNA), USA
27. Prof. Osman Bakr
International Centre for Islamic Studies, Malaysia
28. Sheikh Abu Bakr Baldi
Head of the African community in Portugal, Portugal
29. Dr. Hatem Bazian
Chairman of American Muslims for Palestine (AMP), USA
30. Dr. Mohammed Bechari
Member of the International Islamic Fiqh Academy, and President of the French National Federation of Muslims, France
31. HE Shaykh Abdallah bin Bayyah
Leading Muslim Scholar and President of the Forum for Promoting Peace in Muslim Societies, Abu Dhabi
32. HRH Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad
Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Tought, Jordan
33. Al-Habib Muhammad Luthf bin Ali bin Yahya
Islamic Preacher, Indonesia
34. HE Sheikh Dr. Ra’ed Abdullah Budair
Member of the Body of Scholars and Preachers, Jerusalem
35. Dr. Mohammad Abdul Sam’i Budair
Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt
36. Dr. Sameer Budinar
Muslim Scholar and Director of the Centre for Humanities and Social Studies, Morocco
37. Dr. Zahid Bukhari
Executive Director of the Center for Islam and Public Policy (CIPP), USA
38. HE Prof. Mustafa Ceric
Former Grand Mufti of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina
39. HE Mr. Ibrahim Chabbouh
Tunisian Scholar, Tunisia
40. Prof. Caner Dagli
Professor of Islamic Studies, USA
41. Prof. Jamal Farouq Al-Daqqaq
Professor at Al-Azhar University, Egypt
42. Seyyed Abdullah Fadaaq
Islamic Preacher and Scholar, Saudi Arabia
43. Sheikh Wahid Al-Fasi Al-Fahri
Head of the Federation of Italian Muslims, Italy
44. Prof. Mohammad Nabil Ghanayim
Professor of Shari’ah, Dar al-Ulum College, Cairo University, Egypt
45. Sheikh Dr. Ali Gomaa
Former Grand Mufti of Egypt, Egypt
46. HE Dr. Ahmad Abdul-Aziz Al-Haddad
Head of the Fatwa Department, Dubai, UAE
47. Dr. Abdullah Hafzi
Secretary-General of the International Association for Idrisid Sherifs and their Cousins, Morocco
48. HE Sheikh Mustafa Hajji
Te Mufti of Bulgaria, Bulgaria
49. Sheikh Ali Al-Halabi
Author and Islamic Preacher, Jordan
50. Sheikh Hamza Yusuf Hanson
Founder and Director of Zaytuna College, USA
51. Sheikh Farouq Aref Hasan
Te Integral Professorial Chair for the Study of Imam Fakhr Al-Din Al-Razi’s Work, Jordan
52. HE Sheikh Ali bin Abdul Rahman Aal Hashem
Advisor to HH the Head of State for Judicial and Religious Afairs, UAE
53. Dr. Ahmad Hassan
Professor of Da’wah and Irshad, Yemen
54. Sheikh Musa Hassan
Secretary-General of Majma’ al-Ummah, Sweden
55. HE Prof. Mohammad Al-Hifnawi
Professor of Usul al-Fiqh at the Faculty of Shari’ah and Law at Al-Azhar University, Tanta branch, Egypt
56. Prof. Sami Hilal
Dean of the College of the Holy Qur’an, Tanta University, Egypt
57. Prof. Sa’d al-Din Al-Hilali
Head of the Department of Comparative Jurisprudence at Al-Azhar University, Egypt
58. Ed Husain
 Senior Fellow in Middle Eastern Studies, (CFR), UK
59. Imam Monawar Hussain
Founder of the Oxford Foundation, UK
60. HE Sheikh Muhammad Ahmad Hussein
Mufti of Jerusalem and All Palestine, Palestine
61. HE Sheikh Ibrahim Saleh Al-Husseini
Head of the Supreme Council for Fatwa and Islamic Afairs, Nigeria
62. Dr. Jabri Ibrahim
Head of the Preaching and Guidance Department at the Yemeni Awqaf Ministry, Yemen
63. Dr. Khaled Imran
Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt
64. Prof. Salah al-Din Al-Ja’farawi
Assistant Secretary-General of the European Islamic Conference, Consultant for the Ibn Sina Institute in France, and Consultant to the Muhammad bin Rashid Al Maktoum Charitable Foundation, Germany
65. Dr. Omar Jah
Head of the Sheikh Abdullah Jah Charity Foundation, Gambia
66. Oussama Jammal
Secretary-General of the U.S. Council of Muslim Organizations (USCMO), USA
67. Sheikh Muqbil Al-Kadhi
Islamic Preacher, Yemen
68. Prof. Muhammad Hashem Kamali
Founding Chairman and CEO of the International Institute of Advanced Islamic Studies, Afghanistan
69. Prof. Enes Karic
Bosnian Scholar, Bosnia and Herzegovina
70. Yusuf Z. Kavakci
Prof. Dr. (Emeritus), USA
71. Sheikh Ahmad Wisam Khadhr
Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt
72. Sheikh Muhammad Wisam Khadhr
Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt
73. Sheikh Abdul-Majeed Khayroun
Union of Mosques, the Netherlands
74. Sheikh Mohammad Yahya Al-Kittani
Preacher & Imam, Egypt
75. Sheikh Dr. Mohammad Al-Kumein
Professor of Da’wah, Yemen
76. Sheikh Amr Mohamed Helmi Khaled
Islamic Preacher and Founder and President of the Right Start Global Foundation, Egypt
77. Prof. Judge Maher Alyan Khudair
Supreme Shari’ah Court Judge and member of the Body of Scholars and Preachers in Jerusalem, Palestine
78. Shaykh Prof. Ahmad Al-Kubaisi
Founder of the ‘Ulema Association, Iraq
79. Prof. Joseph E. B. Lumbard
Professor at Brandeis University, USA
80. HE Sheikh Mahmood As’ad Madani
Secretary-General of Jamiat Ulema-i-Hind, India
81. Prof. Dr. Abdul Hamid Madkour
Professor of Islamic Philosophy, Dar al-Ulum College, Cairo University, Egypt
82. Sheik Mohamed Magid
83. Prof. Mohammad Mukhtar Al-Mahdi
Professor of Islamic Studies, Al-Azhar University and President of the Shari’ah Society, Egypt
84. Imam al-Sadiq Al-Mahdi
Chairman of the National Umma Party, Sudan
85. Sheikh Ahmad Mamdouh
Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt
86. Prof. Bashar Awad Marouf
Iraqi Scholar, Author and Historian, Iraq
87. Mr. Bakkay Marzouq
French National Federation of Muslims, France
88. Sheikh Moez Masoud
Islamic Preacher, Egypt
89. Prof. Mohammad Abdul Samad Muhanna
Advisor to the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar Al-Sharif, Egypt
90. Sheikh Mukhtar Muhsen
Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt
91. Professor Fathi Awad Al-Mulla
Pundit and consultant for the Association of Islamic Universities, Egypt
92. Sheikh Hussein Al-Obeidi
Sheikh of the Al-Zaytuna Grand Mosque, Tunisia
93. Dr. Yasir Qadhi
Professor of Islamic Studies, Rhodes College, USA
94. Dr. Muhammad Tahir Al-Qadri
Founder of Minhaj-ul-Qur’an International, Pakistan
95. Sheikh Mohammad Hasan Qarib-Allah
Muslim Scholar, Sudan
96. Mr. Abdul Hadi Al-Qasabi
Grand Sheikh of the Suf Tariqahs in Egypt, Egypt
97. Prof. Saif Rajab Qazamil
Professor of Comparative Jurisprudence, Al-Azhar University, Egypt
98. Sheikh Faraz Rabbani
Islamic Scholar and Founder of Seekers Guidance, Canada
99. Sheikh Ashraf Sa’ad
Muslim Scholar, Egypt
100. Sheikh Dr. Hmoud Al-Sa’idi
Islamic Preacher and Undersecretary at the Yemeni Ministry of Awqaf, Yemen
101. Sheikh Hasan Al-Sheikh
Head of Religious Afairs at the Salah Mosque, the largest mosque in Yemen, Yemen
102.Sheikh Mahmoud Al-Sharif
Head of the Association of Sherifs in Egypt, Egypt
103. HE Sheikh Abdullah Al-Sheikh Sae’eed
Head of the Association of Islamic Scholars in Kurdistan, Kurdistan
104.Dr. Mohamad Adam El Sheikh
Executive Director of the Fiqh Council of North America, USA
105.Dr. Mohammad Sammak
Secretary-General of the National Committee for Christian-Muslim Dialogue, Lebanon
106.Dr. Zulfqar Ali Shah
Secretary General of the Fiqh Council of America, USA
107. Prof. Ismail Abdul-Nabi Shaheen
Vice President Al-Azhar University and Deputy Secretary-General of the League of Islamic Universities, Egypt
108.Dr. Omar Shahin
Secretary General of the North American Imam Federation, USA
109.Imam Talib M. Shareef
President of the Nation's Mosque, Masjid Muhammad, USA
110. Dr. Ahmad Shqeirat
Member of the North American Imams Federation, USA
111. Dr. Muzammil Siddiqi
Chairman of the Fiqh Council of North America, USA
112. Dr. Muddassir H. Siddiqui
Council Member of the Fiqh Council of North America, USA
113. Prof. Nabil Al-Smalouti
Professor of Sociology and former Dean of the Department of Humanities, Al-Azhar University, Egypt
114. HE Prof. M. Din Syamsuddin
President of Muhammadiyah, and Chairman of the Indonesian Council of Ulama, Indonesia
115. Dr. Mohammad Tallabi
Muslim Scholar and leader in the Tawhid and Islah Movement, Morocco
116. Eng. Salmann Tamimi
Founder of the Muslim Association of Iceland, Iceland
117. HE Sheikh Na’im Ternava
Te Mufti Kosovo, Kosovo
118. Dr. Muhammad Suheyl Umar
Director of Iqbal Academy, Pakistan
119. Mr. Mohammad Wadgiri
Head of the Muslim community in Belgium, Belgium
120.HE Dato’ Wan Zahidi bin Wan Teh
Former Mufti of Malaysia’s Federal Territories , Malaysia
121. Dr. Amr Wardani
Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt
122. HE Prof. Muhammad Al-Mukhtar Wuld-Abah
President of Chinguitt Modern University, Mauritania
123. Sheikh Muhammad Al-Yacoubi
Islamic Preacher, Syria
124.Sheikh Mohammad Mustafa Al-Fakki Al-Yaqouti
Minister of State in the Sudanese Ministry of Awqaf, Sudan
125. HE Sheikh Muhammad Sadiq Muhammad Yusuf
Former Grand Mufti of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Uzbekistan
126. Prof. Zaki Zaidan
Professor of Shari’ah, Faculty of Law, Tanta University, Egypt

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