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Tuesday, April 6, 2021
The Verses of Jihad: Meaning, Denotation, Reason of Revelation and Background- Part 2
By Badruddoja Razvi Misbahi, New Age Islam
6 April 2021
Wasim Rizvi has recently filed a PIL in the Supreme Court against the 26 verses of jihad mentioned in the eternal unchangeable Holy Qur'an and made an illegitimate demand to remove these verses from the Holy Qur'an by declaring these verses as the result of a mixture of the three caliphs (May Allah be pleased with them). This is not a new stratagem. This is what the Vishwa Hindu Parishad did two decades ago by publishing and distributing a pamphlet on a large scale from its office. But the VishwaHinduParishad also did not dare to go to the Supreme Court and challenge the holy Qur'an, but today its follower Wasim Rizvi has filed a petition in the Supreme Court against these verses, which not only surprised the Muslim world but also stirred up their quiet emotions.
By denying the basic beliefs of the Deen (Religion of Islam), he has made it clear that he is not a Muslim anymore. Today, even the centers of Shiite scholars and Shaykhs are massively calling him an apostate for his immoral act. Therefore, they are worthy of congratulations. Even Wasim Rizvi’s younger brother gave a speech in a very heartfelt tone with his family, mother, brother, and sister and announced his no-relation with him, which we welcome.
Now we will present these objectionable verses one after the other, then in the light of the authentic commentaries, we will shed light on their meanings and denotations, reason of revelation, and background so that it becomes clear that Islam is the religion of humanity and divine law. This is not the manipulated work of any human being. The Qur'an is an eternal unalterable book revealed by God Almighty which is free from all kinds of additions and addendum. Absolutely, the Qur'an does not involve any interference of the three caliphs or the four or any other human being. All its provisions, generalities, and details are in accordance with the requirements of nature and this is safe from any kind of cutting, trimming, excess, and loss. This will always be safe from any fabrication. The Qur'an calls for reconciliation, tranquility, peace, and order. This has nothing to do with terrorism and terror.
Contradictory verses of jihad and their meaning
فَاِذَا انۡسَلَخَ الۡاَشۡھُرُ الۡحُرُمُ فَاقۡتُلُوا الۡمُشۡرِکِیۡنَ حَیۡثُ وَجَدۡتُّمُوۡھُمۡ وَ خُذُوۡھُمۡ وَ احۡصُرُوۡھُمۡ وَ اقۡعُدُوۡا لَھُمۡ کُلَّ مَرۡصَدٍ ۚ فَاِنۡ تَابُوۡا وَ اَقَامُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ وَ اٰتَوُا الزَّکٰوۃَ فَخَلُّوۡا سَبِیۡلَھُمۡ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰہَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِیۡمٌ(Tawbah, verse 5) Then when the sacred months have passed, strike the polytheists wherever you find them, and seize them and imprison them, and watch over them everywhere. Then if they repent and perform prayer and pay the alms, then leave them alone. Surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (Kunzul Iman)
Here you should know that most of the verses related to jihad objected by the anti-Islamic forces are connected to Surah At-Tawbah. So, first of all, it is important to know here the circumstances and reasons for the revelation of Surah At-Tawbah.
The revelation of the first 30 or 40 verses of Surah At-Tawbah took place in 9th AH after the conquest of Makkah. The Muslims, with the permission of Allah Almighty and the consent of the Holy Prophet had made a truce with the polytheists of Makkah and other Arab tribes. It was necessary for both sides to abide by this covenant. Muslims kept this promise. But the polytheists of Makkah and the Arab tribes broke the covenant except for the Banu Zamra and the Banu Kanana, which are explicitly mentioned in verse 4 of Surah At-Tawbah. Even they also set aside the last treaty of the Peace of Hudaybiyyah. The provisions of the Peace of Hudaybiyyah were apparently pointing to the weakness of the Muslims.
In this advanced age, the non-Muslim world also respects the treaty and makes the treaty obligatory in all circumstances. In Islam, the treaty has been strongly emphasized. The holy Qur'an has commanded to fulfill the covenant several times. Even it has also been said that you should fulfill the covenant. Surely the covenant will be questioned. وَاَوۡفُوۡا بِالۡعَهْدِ لأنَّ الۡعَهْدَ كَانَ مَسۡؤُلًا(Bani Isra'il, verse 34).
But obviously, when one party breaks the covenant, the covenant is automatically broken, and the same thing happened to the peace-treaty of Hudaybiyyah. When the pagans of Makkah broke their promise, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent Hazrat Abu Bakr (radi allahu anhu) to Makkah on the occasion of Hajj in 9th, AH, making him the Emir of Hajj. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him) delivered a sermon on the day of Tarwiyah (8th / Dhul-Hijjah) in which he explained the rites of Hajj. On the day of Nahr 10th / Dhul-Hijjah, addressing the polytheists of Makkah at the valley of Jamrah, Hazrat Ali (May Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: “O people! I have come to you as the messenger of the Prophet (peace be upon him)”. The polytheists said: “What message have you brought for us?” In response, Hazrat Ali recited the first 30 or 40 verses of SurahAt-Tawbah and said: “I have come to you with the command of four things. (1) After this year, no polytheists will come to the Ka'bah. (2) No one should circumambulate the Ka'bah being naked. (3) No one will enter Paradise except the believers. (4) The covenant of every Dhimmi will be fulfilled.”
The above statement makes it clear that the polytheists who are commanded in verse 5 to be killed or fought after the passing of holy months do not refer to the common infidels and polytheists, but only to the Arab polytheists who not only broke the covenant with the Muslims but also spent their filthy efforts to violate the call of Islam, as the commentator Abi Saud in his commentary on the verse “فاقتلوا المشرکین” says, “الناكثين خاصة فلا يكون قتال الباقين مفهما عن عبارة النص بل من دلالته”, that is, “the word Mushrikin in the verse 9:5 specifically refers to Nakithin, those who violated peace treaties by violating war against the Muslims. So other Mushrikin will not be fought as it is clear from the direct meaning of the text of the verse, as well as from the Dalalat al-Nass’ (i.e. a situation where the literal meaning of any word is dropped due to the context and structure of the text) [TafsirAbi Saud vol. 4, p. 43]
Sahib-i-Madarik has also given the same commentary on it, saying: “الذین نقضوکم و ظاھروا علیکم” Those who violated you and attacked upon you" [Tafsir al-Nusafi, vol. 2, p. 166, AsahhulMata'biy, Mumbai]
Rather, in this Surah, from the beginning to the end, the address is meant for the disbelievers and the polytheists who did not keep their promise of peace-treaty. The commentator Abi Saud says in the commentary of the next verse: المراد بالمشرکین الناکثون لان البراءۃ انما ھی فی شانھم, What is meant by the polytheists are truce violators because innocence is only in their affairs. [ Also, p. 44]
From these authentic and reliable commentaries, it becomes clear that the command to kill the polytheists and infidels, mentioned in the verse 9:5 does not refer to the common infidels, polytheists, and fellow citizens and brothers of India, as Wasim Rizvi and anti-Islamic elements are propagating, but it refers to the polytheists of Makkah and the Arab tribes of the Covenant who committed heinous crimes such as murder, betrayal, and breach of covenant with the Muslims. The Qur'an does not advocate shooting with AK-47 at innocent people or other people while walking for no reason, making hundreds of children orphaned and snatching honeycomb from the heads of hundreds of women. The Qur'an claims that if a human being took the life of any human being for no reason, regardless of his religion, as if he was the killer of all human beings on earth, and if anyone saved the life of any oppressed, weak and feeble human being, so it is as if he worked to save the lives of all human beings on earth. The Qur'an says مَن قَتَلَ نَفْسًا بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ أَوْ فَسَادٍ فِيَ الْأَرْضِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَتَلَ النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا وَمَنْ َأحْيَاهَا فَكَأَنَّمَا أَحْيَا النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا, Whoever kills a soul without exchange for life or causes corruption on the earth, it is as if he has killed all the people, and whoever burns one soul, it is as if he has burnt all the people (Kanzul-Iman). If the Islamic system of governance is in any place, the lives, property, and rights of the non-Muslim minority is as secure as the lives, property, and rights of the Muslim majority. They also have the same right to practice their religion and build a place of worship as the Muslim majority do have, as the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: " مَنْ قَتَلَ مُعَاهِدًا فِي غَيْرِ كُنْهِهِ حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ الْجَنَّةَ" (Al-Mustadrak Lil-Hakim, V: 2, p .: 142, Book of the Al Fai, Dar Al-Maarif, Beirut, Lebanon) Whoever kills a person of treaty other than his own, God forbids Paradise for him.
In another place, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:" مَنْ قَتَلَ نفسا مُعَاهَدۃ لَمْ يَرَحْ رَائِحَةَ الْجَنَّةِ، وَإِنَّ رِيحَهَا لیوجَدُ مِنْ مَسِيرَةِ خمسمائۃ عام "He who kills a person with whom there is an agreement of peace will not take the smell of paradise, and the smell of it is found from the journey of five hundred years. (Collection of Al-Jawami` Lil-Suyuti, V: 9, p. 721, Dar Al-Sa`adah,)
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is reprimanding the one who breaks covenant after making it, in the following way: " اِن الغادِر یُنصب لہ لواء یوم القیامۃ فیقول ھذہ غدرۃ فلان بن فلان" , (Collection of Al Jawami` Lil-Suyuti, V: 8, p. 370, Dar al-Sa`adah,) Indeed, a sign will be raised on the Day of Resurrection for the one who broke the covenant and it will be said that he betrayed such and such a person.
Once a Muslim who had killed a non-Muslim with whom there was an agreement of peace, was presented before Hazrat Ali (May Allah be pleased with him). When the evidence of killing was presented, Hazrat Ali commanded this Muslim to be executed. Then the victim’s brother came and said, “Don’t kill him! I have forgiven him”. On this Hazrat Ali said, “Maybe that these people have threatened and terrorized you?. He said, No. they have murdered my brother and now I can’t get my brother back. They have offered me blood money and I have accepted it. Then Hazrat Ali told the non-Muslim, “You know very well that " من كان له ذمتنا فدمه كدمنا وديته كديتنا” that is, for a person who is under our protection, his life also has the same sanctity that ours has and his blood money is equal to our blood money” [Al-Sunan Al-Kubra Lil-Baihqi, V: 8, p .: 63, Al-Jarrah Al-Hadith Book: 15934, Dar Al-Kotob Al-Ilmiyah, Beirut, Lebanon]. The Arabic version of this narration is: من كان له ذمتنا فدمه كدمنا وديته كديتنا