Tuesday, November 15, 2022

What Are The Differences Between The Hayati Deobandis And The Mamati Deobandis?

By New Age Islam Staff Writer 15 November 2022 Do Prophets Live On After Death; How Do The Hayati And Mamati Deobandis Deal With It? Main Points 1. Is there an enduring connection between the Prophet’s spirit and their buried body? 2. The question brings up a number of theological issues, but they all centre on the effectiveness of intercession Shafa'a and Tawassul). 3. And then can a person interact with those in the current physical world if they are alive? 4. According to the Hayati Deobandis, the Prophet is alive in his grave and intercedes for persons who seek intercession. 5. The Mamati Deobandis reject the Hayatis’ position and say that the "soul" has moved on to another place, leaving only the decaying corpse behind. ------ Hayati (alive) and Mamati are the two main groups associated with Deoband in contemporary discourse, whether formally and informally. The nomenclature makes it very obvious that the controversial subject pertains to the physical state and spiritual abilities of holy people after death. To put it bluntly: Do prophets live on after death? Is there an enduring connection between their spirit and the buried body? The question brings up a number of theological issues, but they all centre on the effectiveness of intercession (Shafa’a and Tawassul). And then can a person interact with those in the current physical world if they are alive? The answer for the Hayati is: yes. The belief held by the Hayati Deobandis, according to which the Prophet had an invisible but living presence among the Ummah, is more similar to that of the Barelwi. Like the Salafis, the Mamati Deobandis think that the Prophet is solely present in a specific residence within Heaven. According to the Hayati Deobandis, the Prophet intercedes for persons who seek intercession. This raises the related question of whether the Prophet Muhammad is the only one who has been granted this status by God, or if other prophets as well as holy figures like the caliphs and saints ('Awliya) have also been granted this status by God. The Hayati perspective is a reflection of traditional Sunni belief. They assert that even though a person has access to the transitory realm to varying degrees, they still have consciousness and are still alive in Barzakh. The Mamati, on the other hand, passionately disagree, saying that death forges an impenetrable barrier that separates these realms. The Hayati viewpoint is the accepted Deobandi perspective. However, the gradual rise in support for the Mamati viewpoint over the past few decades suggests that the movement's division over the question of intercession has grown to be a significant rift. Both the Hayati and the Mamati Deobandis offer textual evidence from the Quran and Sunnah in support of their respective positions. Intercession is primarily discussed negatively in the Qur'an. For instance, it says that on the Day of Judgment, no intercession will be recognised (2:48, 23; 74:48–9; 82:19). "Protect yourselves against a Day when no soul will stand in the place of another, no intercession will be accepted for it, no ransom will be received for it, nor will they be helped (2:48)," it says there. At one place, Allah says, “You who believe, contribute from what We have supplied for you before the Day arrives when there is no bargaining, no friendliness, and no intercession (2:54)," It is also stated that only Allah has the authority to intercede. Say, "All intercession belongs to God alone; He retains control of the heavens and the earth; in the end, you will all return to Him," as it is recited in Al-Zumar (39:44). Additionally, there are texts that suggest intercession is permitted by God (20:108–9; 2:254–5). Thus, even though Allah is the only one who has the authority to intercede, it is clear that He may grant this authority to some exalted people (10:3; 20:109; 21:28; 19:87; 34:23; 4:64 12:97–8). It appears that seeking such intercession is encouraged by Surah al-Ma'idah (Q5:35): "O you who believe! Be mindful of your obligations to Allah, seek out means (Wasilla) to get closer to Him, and work hard to follow His path if you want to succeed.” The prevailing Sunni opinion throughout history has been that the path to eternal pleasure is through the Prophet's intercession (Shafa'ah) on the Day of Judgment. The Mamati, like the Salafis and Wahhabis, believe that it is wrong to ask the dead for forgiveness. They view such beliefs as being equivalent to polytheism (shirk). Sarfraz Khan Safdar writes in Taskinus Sadar, "The grave is vacant, there is no one there... When a prophet's grave is opened, spectators will see that the prophet is still and devoid of all emotion” (Khan 2010: 37). This viewpoint is shared by a substantial number of modern Deobandi Ulama scattered throughout Pakistan. Some of the more well-known ones include Maulana Ghulam Allah Khan, Mufti Muhammad Tahir, Nur Muhammad, Qazi Shamshuddin, Pir-i Tariqat Sayyid Inayatullah Shah Bukhari, and Muhammad Ameer Bandealwi. Regarding the matter of intercession, these Mamati Deobandis view the tomb more as a memorial for the deceased than as a centre of spiritual force. The "soul" has moved on to another place, leaving only the decaying corpse behind. This is a denial of the bodily existence of the deceased and their capacity to influence events in the present. They contend that calling upon the dead is equivalent to speaking to an idol; it is a damaging addition (Bid’a) to Islam and should be avoided in order to prevent misunderstanding and false beliefs (Fitna). Muhammad Hussain Neelvi’s ‘Nida-i Haqq’ is a crucial resource for learning about Mamati's claims. Famous Deobandi figures like Amin Safdar Okarwi and Rauf 'Uthmani are criticised by Neelvi for being "too close to Barelvi: you became Sufis, you worship graves" by doing so” (Neelvi n.d.: 18–19.) He places particular emphasis on four points of disagreement: the location and state of the spirit after death (Hayat Ar-Ruh); the legality of hearing the dead (Sama ul Muata); the power of others to intercede (Tawassul); and the relationship between the soul and the body after death. He maintains that the dead pass on to another place and are powerless to intercede. Neelvi writes, “To attempt to listen or invoke them is to place faith upon that which is other than Allah. To seek this intercession is to deviate from the clear teachings of the founders of Deoband, who directly opposed this Barelvi view and practice” (Neelvi nd: 2010) However, as was already indicated, the Hayati adhere to the dominant Deobandi viewpoint. This is not surprising given the founders' tight ties to certain Sufi tariqas and shrines, which was typical of South Asian Islam. The Hayati assert that the Deobandi founders were unequivocally clear that saintly people are still alive in the afterlife and can intercede for the living with regard to the belief in intercession. [Summarized from https://www.baylorisr.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Deoband-Anti-Sufi-1-1.pdf] We are using quotes from the famous Deobandi Ulama whose opinions reflect the Hayati perspective and enjoy significant popularity among their followers. Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi says, “The Prophet (peace be upon him) is alive in his grave”(Hidayat al-Shia p. 44) According to Qasim Nanotwi, "All the Prophets (peace be upon them) and the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) are alive in their graves" (Hidayat al-Shia, p. 268). The Prophet's statement (Hadith) that the Prophets are alive does not imply that just their souls are alive; rather, Anwar Shah Kashmiri explains that the hadith means that the Prophets are alive in both their bodies and souls. (Tahiyat al-Islam, p.38) According to Ashraf Ali Thanvi, the Prophet (peace be upon him) is still alive and well in his grave. Other Deobandi Ulama statements that Maulana Muhibullah collated in his book "Mamati Fitna Ulama e Deoband Ki Nazar Me" also support the Hayati Position. The key source that is most usually cited to provide information about the creeds of the great Deobandi Ulama is Al-Muhannad Ala Al-Mufannad by Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri. In this book, Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri writes, It should be noted that we and our Mashaikh follow the linked paths of the Naqshabandiyya, Chishtiyya, Qadriyya, and Suhrawardiyya in addition to the jurisprudential authority of Abu Hanifa, the creed-principles of Abul Hassan Ashari, and Abu Mansur Maturidi. Without the Qur'an, the Sunnah, the Ijma, or an Imam's pronouncement (qaul), we do not accept anything (Saharanpuri 1907: 8). Then Saharanpuri continues, saying that this is in line with the chain of approved guidance: For us and our Mashaikh, it is acceptable in prayer to ask the prophets, saints (Awliya), martyrs (Shuhada), and the righteous figures for intercession, either while they are still alive or after death. Your prayers to Allah may be accepted and more effective by using a revered person's Wasilla (mediation) in this situation (Saharanpuri 1907: 31). Saharanpuri quoted Imam Suyuti as saying that Allama Taqiuddin As-subuki said, “The aliveness of the prophets and martyrs in the grave is like their aliveness when they were alive in this world.” (Anbaahul Azkya bi Hayatil Anbiya, cited in Al- Muhammad Alal-mufannad by Khalil Ahmad al-Saharanpuri, Page 221) Is it permissible to offer prayers behind Mamati Imams? An answer from a Hayati Deobandi Aalim to this query published on banuri.edu.pk is: “According to Ahle Sunnah Wal Jama'ah, the Prophets and the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon them) are alive in their graves after they die, receiving food and drink, having their holy bodies unquestionably protected, and entering the world of Barzakh with their bodies. They have a life, and although it resembles that of the rest of the world in certain ways, it differs in that they are not constrained by Shariah law. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) directly hears the blessings (Durood) recited in front of his holy shrine. Those who deny the life of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) after his death are nicknamed "Mamati". It is forbidden to pray behind them because they do not belong to Ahle Sunnah Wal Jama'ah due to their Mamati belief. Instead of praying behind the Mamati imam, one should do so behind an imam who adheres to the correct principles. One may pray behind a Mamati Imam if they feel forced to do so out of concern that they won't have enough time to make it to the congregational prayer. It is not necessary to recite the prayers that have already been offered behind a Mamati Imam since they are correct. However, the reward won't be as big as if one prayed behind a righteous Imam. God alone is aware.” On the Darul Uloom Deoband website is a similar fatwa. URL: https://newageislam.com/islam-sectarianism/differences-hayati-mamati-deobandis/d/128401 New Age Islam, Islam Online, Islamic Website, African Muslim News, Arab World News, South Asia News, Indian Muslim News, World Muslim News, Women in Islam, Islamic Feminism, Arab Women, Women In Arab, Islamophobia in America, Muslim Women in West, Islam Women and Feminism

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