Thursday, April 20, 2023

The Rulings of Sadaqa-e-Fitr or the Fast-breaking Charity: Thirty Lessons of Ramadan – Part 29

By Mufti Abdul Malik Misbahi, New Age Islam Translated into English by Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi, New Age Islam 20 April 2023 Islam has commanded Muslims to pay "Sadaqa-e-Fitr" [also known as Zakat al-Fitr or Zakat al-Fitrah] in order to make up for any deficiencies that may have occurred while fasting throughout the month of Ramadan and to share the joy of Eid with the less fortunate Muslims. The verdicts in this matter are clarified in the ensuing hadiths. Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) commanded that every Muslim, whether slave or free person, a male or a female, a young or an old, pay one Saa’ of dates or one Saa’ of barley as Sadaqat-ul-Fitr. Furthermore, He (peace be upon him) ordered that it be paid before the people's departure for performing Salah (Eid Namaz). (Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim) "Pay Sadaqa for your fasts," said Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) at the end of Ramadan, "for this Sadaqa has been stipulated by the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), which is one Saa' of dates or one Saa' of barley or half Saa' of wheat." (Abu Dawud and Nasa'i reported this) Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah and Haakim have reported from Sayyiduna Abdullah Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) stipulated the Zakaat-ul-Fitr in order to purify the fasts from vulgar and shameless speech and to provide food for the needy (Miskeen). Hazrat Anas narrates that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “The fasts of a servant remains suspended between the skies and the earth until he does not discharge the Sadaqa-e-Fitr.” (Reported by Dailami, Khateeb and Ibn Asaakir) Law: Sadaqa-e-Fitr is Waajib (compulsory). One has their entire life to pay it off. In other words, if he has not paid it off within the allotted time, he should do so right now. If it is not discharged it will not fall away [from one's obligation], and to pay it right now does not mean it is Qaza, but it will still be regarded as Ada (on time), even though it is Masnun to do so before the Namaaz of Eid. [Durr-e-Mukhtar] Law: Since Sadaqa-e-Fitr is Waajib upon the person (i.e., an individual) rather than his wealth, it will not be paid from his wealth in the event of his death. But if his heirs would choose to pay it as a gesture of goodwill on their part, they are free to do so. They are not required to, though. Even if his heirs object, if the deceased made a Wasiyat that it should be paid, it must be paid from one-third of his wealth (from which he is allowed to make a Wasiyat). (Juahira, etc) Law: As soon as the True Dawn (Subh-e-Saadiq) arrives on the Day of Eid, Sadaqa-e-Fitr turns into Waajib. So, it is not Waajib upon someone who passed away before the True Dawn, or if someone was wealthy and became a Faqeer, or if an unbeliever became a Muslim after the first light appeared, or if a child was born, or if a Faqeer became affluent, then it is not Waajib upon them. However, it is Waajib upon them if he passed away after the first light had appeared, or if an unbeliever became a Muslim before the first light had, or if a child was born, or if he was a Faqeer and became affluent. [Alamgiri] Law: Every Free Muslim who owns Nisaab, whose Nisaab is greater than his Haajat-e-Asliyah, is required to pay Sadaqa-e-Fitr. There is no condition of Aaqil (sanity), Baaligh (puberty), or Maal-e-Naami (productive wealth) in this. [Durr-e-Mukhtar] Law: It is also not a condition for the wealth to stay intact in order to pay Sadaqa-e-Fitr. In contrast to the rule of Zakat and Ushr, the obligation of which falls away after the wealth has been ruined or lost, Sadaqa is still Waajib and will not fall away (from one's duty) even if the wealth is destroyed or lost. [Durr-e-Mukhtar] Law: Fasting is not a condition in order for Sadaqa-e-Fitr to be considered Waajib. Regardless of whether someone missed the fast for a legitimate reason—such as travel, illness, or advanced age—or whether he missed it without a legitimate excuse, the Sadaqa e Fitr is still Waajib in all of the aforementioned situations. [Raddul Muhtaar] Law: The paternal grandfather takes the role of the father if he is not alive. He is obligated to give Sadaqa on behalf of his needy grandsons and granddaughters. [Durr-e-Mukhtar] Law: A person is not liable for the Fitrah of his wife and his children who are Aaqil and Baaligh, even if they are disabled [or differently abled], and even if he is in charge of their provisions. [Durr-e-Mukhtar] Law: If a person paid the Fitrah of his wife and his Baaligh children without getting their consent, it will be considered discharged, on condition that the children are from his Ay’yaal (i.e. his children whom he is providing for, i.e. his dependants). In other words, the provisions etc. of those children are his responsibility; otherwise, it will not be regarded as discharged if he does so, on behalf of his children without their permission. It won't be discharged if the wife paid her husband's Fitrah without his consent. [Alamgiri/Raddul Muhtar] Law: One is not responsible for paying the Fitrah of his mother, father, paternal grandfather, paternal grandmother, and his Na-Baaligh brothers and for that of his other relatives; and he cannot pay it without their authority. [Alamgiri] Law: It is best to give the Fitrah of one person to one Miskeen (needy person), and if it was divided between several needy persons, then this is also permissible. Similarly, the Fitrah of many needy persons can be given to one Miskeen, even though they may all be mixed together. [Durr-e-Mukhtar/Raddul Muhtaar] Law: The recipients of Sadaqa-e-Fitr are the same as those who are the recipients of Zakat. In other words, you may give Fitrah to those to whom you may give Zakat, and you are not permitted to give Fitrah to those, to whom you are not permitted to give Zakat, with the exception of an ‘Aamil’ (Zakat Collector appointed by the Islamic Ruler), because he is permitted to accept Zakaat, but not Fitrah. [Durr-e-Mukhtar/Raddul Muhtaar] (Continued) Related Article: How, When, Whom and Why To Pay Fast-Breaking Charity (Sadqa-E-Fitr)? ------ Mufti Abdul Malik Misbahi is the author of multiple books. He has also lectured and held positions such as Mufti, Shaykhul Hadith, president, founder, and director at a number of institutions, including Darul Uloom Ghousia in Hubli, Karnataka, and Darul Uoom Solemaniya Rahmaniya in Bikaner Darul Uloom Reza-e-Mustafa, Bihar, Madrasa Shah Khalid, Vanwa Libo Muslim League, Fiji (near Australia), Madina Educational Society, Rajasthan. He currently holds the positions of Mufti in the Sunni Darul Ifta in the Madina Masjid, General Secretary of the Raza Foundation, Director of the Darain Academy, Founder of the Afkar-e- Raza Institution, and Chief Editor of the Do-Maahi Raza-e-Madina (Urdu, Hindi) in Azadnagar, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand. Previous Articles: Thirty Lessons of Ramadan: Welcome to Ramadan and First Lesson on the Virtues of Ramadan Thirty Lessons of Ramadan: Second Lesson on the Respect of Ramadan – Part 2 Thirty Lessons Of Ramadan: Third Lesson On The Horrific Consequences Of Desecrating Ramadan – Part 3 Thirty Lessons of Ramadan: Fourth Lesson on the Fasting Of Ramadan and its Intention – Part 4 Thirty Lessons of Ramadan: Lessons Five and Six on the Rulings (Ahkaam) And Laws (Masaail) Of Taraweeh Part 5 and 6 Thirty Lessons Of Ramadan: Seventh Lesson On Sehri [Pre-Dawn Meal] Part 7 Thirty Lessons of Ramadan: Eighth Lesson on Iftar – Part 8 Thirty Lessons of Ramadan: Ninth Lesson on Rulings and Laws Related to Fasting – Part 9 Thirty Lessons Of Ramadan: Tenth Lesson On Rulings And Laws Related To Fasting – Part 10 Thirty Lessons of Ramadan: The Eleventh Lesson on Rulings Regarding Fasting and the Conditions That Permit Refraining From Fasting - Part 11 Thirty Lessons of Ramadan: Twelfth Lesson on Rulings Related to Qazaa, Kaffarah and Fidyah – Part 12 Thirty Lessons of Ramadan: 13th Lesson on Rulings of Kaffarah and Fidyah – Part 13 Thirty Lessons of Ramadan: The Fourteenth Lesson on the Updated Guidelines for the Treatment in the State of Fasting – Part 14 Thirty Lessons of Ramadan: The Fifteenth Lesson on the Updated Guidelines for the Treatment in the State of Fasting – Part 15 Thirty Lessons of Ramadan: The Sixteenth Lesson on the Updated Guidelines for the Treatment in the State of Fasting – Part 16 Thirty Lessons of Ramadan: Zakaat in the Light of the Quran and Hadith – Part 17 The Rulings and Laws of Zakaat: Thirty Lessons of Ramadan - Part 18 The Virtues and Laws of I’tikaaf: Thirty Lessons of Ramadan - Part 19 The Virtues of the Qadr Night or Lailatul Qadr: Thirty Lessons of Ramadan - Part 20 Fasting and Modern Science: Thirty Lessons of Ramadan - Part 21 Some Facts about The Holy Quran: Thirty Lessons of Ramadan - Part 22 Virtues and Rulings about the Recitation of the Holy Quran: Thirty Lessons of Ramadan – Part 23 Ramadan—the Month of Generosity and Charity: Thirty Lessons of Ramadan – Part 24 The Importance of Halal Sustenance: Thirty Lessons of Ramadan – Part 25 The Rights of Neighbours in Islam: Thirty Lessons of Ramadan – Part 26 Juma’ah and Jumu'at-ul-Widaa': Thirty Lessons of Ramadan – Part 27 The Description Of Moon-Sighting: Thirty Lessons Of Ramadan – Part 28 URL: New Age Islam, Islam Online, Islamic Website, African Muslim News, Arab World News, South Asia News, Indian Muslim News, World Muslim News, Women in Islam, Islamic Feminism, Arab Women, Women In Arab, Islamophobia in America, Muslim Women in West, Islam Women and Feminism

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